Special Needs

A brief understanding of Autism in children

Autism, also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a neurological and developmental disorder that affects communication, social interaction, and behavior. It usually becomes apparent in early childhood and can persist throughout an individual's life.

Children with autism may have difficulty with verbal and nonverbal communication, such as maintaining eye contact, using gestures, and understanding social cues. They may also struggle with social interaction, such as making friends, playing with others, and sharing interests.

Autism can also affect a child's behavior, leading to repetitive behaviors or interests, hyperactivity, and sensory sensitivities. They may also have difficulty adapting to changes in routine or new situations.

Autism is a spectrum disorder, meaning that the severity and range of symptoms can vary widely between individuals. Some children with autism may have relatively mild symptoms and be able to function independently, while others may require significant support throughout their lives.

There is no known cure for autism, but early diagnosis and intervention, as well as individualized therapy and support, can help children with autism develop communication, social, and behavioral skills and lead fulfilling lives.

Unique strengths

  • People with ASD often have strong attention to detail and can excel in fields that require precision, such as engineering, programming, or art.
  • Many individuals with ASD have a great memory and can recall intricate details from past events or conversations.
  • Some people with ASD may have a unique ability to think creatively and outside the box.

Scientific facts

  • Many people with ASD have a unique perception of the world, including a heightened sensitivity to certain sensory stimuli, such as sounds, textures, and smells.
  • Some studies suggest that people with ASD may have an enhanced ability to recognize patterns and make predictions, which can be valuable in fields such as science and technology.
  • Individuals with ASD may appear non-communicative or “closed off”.
  • ASD occurs in boys more often than in girls.


  • People with ASD may struggle with social interactions, such as making eye contact, understanding social cues, and communicating effectively with others.
  • Sensory issues can be overwhelming for individuals with ASD and may lead to difficulty coping with changes in routine or new environments.

How parents and teachers can be more sensitive:

  • Recognize and celebrate the unique strengths of individuals with ASD, and provide opportunities for them to use their skills and talents.
  • Provide a structured and predictable environment that can help individuals with ASD feel more comfortable and safe.
  • Be patient and understanding of communication difficulties, and use clear and direct language to convey instructions or expectations.


Demetriou, E. A., Lampit, A., Quintana, D. S., Naismith, S. L., Song, Y. J., Pye, J. E., ... & Guastella, A. J. (2018). Autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis of executive function. Molecular psychiatry, 23(5), 1198-1204.

Demetriou, E. A., Song, C. Y., Park, S. H., Pepper, K. L., Naismith, S. L., Hermens, D. F., ... & Guastella, A. J. (2018). Autism, early psychosis, and social anxiety disorder: A transdiagnostic examination of executive function cognitive circuitry and contribution to disability. Translational Psychiatry, 8(1), 200.

Zimmerman, D., Ownsworth, T., O’Donovan, A., Roberts, J., & Gullo, M. J. (2017). Associations between executive functions and mental health outcomes for adults with autism spectrum disorder. Psychiatry Research, 253, 360-363.